DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2011. 19(3):216-23.

Population pharmacokinetics of oral high-dose busulfan in adult patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
M Hadjibabaie, S Rahimian, Z Jahangard-Rafsanjani, M Amini, K Alimoghaddam, M Iravani, A Ghavamzadeh, S Sadrai


Many factors have been reported that contribute to the wide intra- and inter-patient variability of Busulfan (Bu) disposition. The purpose of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic model and to determine the covariates affecting the pharmacokinetics (PK) of Bu in Iranian adult patients who received oral high-dose as a conditioning regimen before Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT).A population PK analysis was performed in 30 patients who received an oral Bu and cyclophosphamide regimen before HSCT. Bu was given orally according to the protocol of the institution. In order to prevent seizures caused by Bu, phenytoin was administered orally one hour before each dose of Bu.A total of 180 blood samples were analyzed by HPLC and PK parameters were estimated by the non-linear mixed effect model by MONOLIX 3.1 program. A one-compartment model with an additive error model was used to describe the concentration-time profile of Bu.Patients' disease and weight was found to be the determinant factors for clearance (CL) and the volume of distribution (Vd) according to Monolix analysis. The covariate entered in final model followed by these equations:[Formula: see text][Formula: see text] In this limited study, the age (15-43 years) had no significant effect. For a patient weighting 60 kg, the typical CL and Vd were estimated to be 13.4 l/hr and 42.6 L, respectively. The interindividual variability of CL and Vd were 13.6 and 6.3%, respectively. There was no significant metabolic induction in these four days as is evident by comparing the trough levels of Bu. However it should be mentioned that, one tailed t-test p-values of the days of two and three, two and four and three and four were 0.083, 0.069 and 0.388, respectively.Results of this study showed that the type of disease was a determinant of CL and the weight of patient was a determinant of Vd for Bu population PK parameters. A reliable PK parameters and Css, estimated from only one plasma concentrations (5 hrs after the first dose), were validated. Since these methods require few sampling and are easy to be used, the limited sampling methods might be advantageous in the routine clinical practice.


Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.;MONOLIX;Phenytoin self-induction;TDM sampling


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