DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2008. 16(3):169-173.

Prevalence of Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae by Phenotypic and Genotypic Methods in Intensive Care Units in Tehran, Iran


Background and the purpose of the study: The occurrence of Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase (ESBL)-producing Entrobacteriaceae has been steadily increased in recent years, resulting in limitation of therapeutic options. The purpose of this study was to determine prevalence of ESBL-producing Entrobacteriaceae isolated from Intensive Care Units (ICUs) and to investigate their phenotypic and genotypic characteristics.

Methods: A total of one hundred fifty isolates were collected from urine and urinary catheter, sputum, blood, wound and other clinical samples from patient admitted in ICUs. All isolates were identified by biochemical tests and then were screened for ESBL production by Disk Agar Diffusion (DAD) according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guideline. The species that met screening criteria were further tested for the effects of clavulanic acid by confirmatory method.  ESBL-positive species were tested for blaTEM and blaSHV genes by PCR assay.

Results: Of total of 150 bacterial isolates, 133(89.3%) isolates were positive in the resistance to all tested cephalosporin indicators; and 89(59.3%) isolates were confirmed as ESBL producer. Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Entrobacter spp. were the most ESBL-producing species. All isolates were sensitive to imipenem. The blaTEM (55.5%) was the most common gene detected in ESBL phenotypic-positive isolates using PCR method.

Conclusion: The present study shows high prevalence of ESBL-producing Entrobacteriaceae from ICU patients. The increased rate of these species is mainly due to the inadequate and unnecessary antimicrobial therapy.  Rational administration of β-lactams and appropriate infection control policies may reduce prevalence of ESBL-producing bacteria in ICUs.


Full Text:



  • There are currently no refbacks.