DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2008. 16(2):88-94.

Evaluation of the effect of Anethum graveolens L. crude extracts on serum lipids and lipoproteins profiles in hypercholesterolaemic rats
Yazdanparast R., Bahramikia S.


Background and the purpose of study: Anethum graveolens L. (Umbilliferae) is used in Iranian folk medicine as an anti-hypercholesterolaemic plant. The present study was carried out to determine the effect of Anethum graveolens extract (AGE) on serum lipoproteins in hypercholesterolaemic rats and also to determine its mechanism of action to some extant on liver hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase activity.

Methods: The changes in serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were measured using enzymatic kits. Hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activity was indirectly measured by the HMG CoA/mevalonate ratio. The amount of total phenolic and flavonoid compounds were also determined by common colorimetric methods.

Results: Keeping the rats on a high-fat diet for 7 consecutive days increased the serum TC, TG and LDL-C levels significantly. However, the HDL-C level decreased relative to normal rats. Treatment of hyperlipidaemic rats with AGE (single daily dose of 1 ml, equivalent to 500 mg of the plant powder) and high-fat diet for up to 10 and/or 30 days reversed the serum lipid levels compared to rats which were fed only high-fat diet. In addition, our data indicated significant increase in HMG-CoA/mevalonate ratio as compared to rats which were fed high-fat diet after treatment with AGE for 30 days, indicating a decrease in the enzyme activity. Experiments showed that AGE has the phenolic and flavonoid content of 105.2 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g of the dried extract and 58.2 mg of catechin equivalents/g of the dried extract, respectively.

Conclusion: The cumulative results clearly indicate that A. graveolens possesses potent hypocholesterolaemic effects in rats probably mediated through the suppression of endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis by inhibition of the activity of HMG-CoA reductase.


Hypercholesterolaemic rats, Hypolipidaemic property, HMG-CoA reductase, Flavonoids content,

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